picoNewton.com

Entropic forces ~ kBT/nm = 4 pN

Forces involved at the biological level

- Breaking of a covalent bond (C-C): 1eV/0.1nm ~ 1600 pN
- Breaking of a noncovalent bond (biotin/streptavidin): 1eV/1nm ~ 160 pN
- Breaking single dsDNA molecule by pulling on opposite ends ~ 65 pN
- Unziping single dsDNA molecule at room temperature ~ 10 pN
- Breaking of a weak bond (Hydrogen bond) ~ 4 pN
- Developped by a molecular motor, walking on microtubule ~ 4 pN
- Langevin force on E-coli for 1 second ~ 0.01 pN